As battles over banned books heat up nationwide, Utah librarians are on the front lines

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Wanda Mae Huffaker wears a pin that has an image of a e-book and a bullhorn, and the phrases “Converse Out! For Banned Books.”

Huffaker, who has been a librarian within the Salt Lake County Library system since 1993, has change into an knowledgeable on banned and challenged books — a subject that has acquired increasingly consideration of late, with college districts in Utah and throughout the nation.

“I feel our very democracy is in danger after we begin [banning books], as a result of it places at risk the First Modification,” Huffaker mentioned, citing the part of the Invoice of Rights that enshrines the liberty of speech, freedom of meeting, freedom of faith, freedom of the press, and the appropriate to redress grievances.

Banning books, she mentioned, “goes towards my very core” — and in her practically 30 years as a librarian, censorship is a subject that’s at all times been round, however has change into extra intense in the previous few years.

“Each dad or mum has to decide on for their very own baby what they need to learn, however solely their very own baby. That’s like our mantra,” she mentioned firmly.

(Chris Samuels | The Salt Lake Tribune) Salt Lake County librarian Wanda Mae Huffaker is interviewed on the Ruth Vine Tyler Library in Midvale, Monday, Feb. 14, 2022.

In accordance with PEN America, the nonprofit free-speech advocacy group, 156 payments proposing what it calls “academic gag orders” have been launched in 39 states since January 2021 — and 12 of them, in 10 states, have already change into regulation.

In the meantime, the incidents of faculty boards taking motion towards books which can be deemed “controversial” are mounting:

• In January, the McMinn County Faculty Board in Tennessee voted unanimously to ban “Maus,” Artwork Spiegelman’s Pulitzer Prize-winning graphic novel about his father’s ordeal surviving the Holocaust, during which Jews are depicted as mice and Nazis as cats. Board members mentioned they objected to swear phrases within the textual content, nude imagery of a lady — which was utilized in depicting Spiegelman’s mom’s suicide.

• Additionally in January, the college board in Mukilteo, Wash., eliminated Harper Lee’s acclaimed novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” from the required ninth-grade studying checklist in English and language arts courses. The board responded to not less than one dad or mum’s grievance that the e-book, which chronicles life in Alabama within the Fifties and contains the trial of a Black man accused of raping a white lady, is racially insensitive.

• Final November, the Canyons Faculty District in Salt Lake County eliminated 9 books from library cabinets — violating the district’s personal insurance policies — after mother and father complained. The books are actually underneath overview.

• And the Murray Faculty District, additionally in Salt Lake County, placed on maintain a various e-book program after mother and father complained about “Name Me Max,” a e-book a couple of transgender boy.

How banning a e-book works

Utah has an extended historical past with censorship — beginning with Reed Smoot, the U.S. senator from Utah who, in 1930, railed towards such imported smut as D.H. Lawrence’s “Woman Chatterley’s Lover,” “The Kama Sutra,” Casanova’s memoirs, and a number of the poetry of Robert Burns.

On the Ruth Vine Tyler library department in Midvale, the place Huffaker relies, one other librarian, Kathryn Kidd, has two youngsters within the Canyon district. She mentioned she has learn most of these 9 books faraway from cabinets within the Canyons district, and he or she loved them.

(Chris Samuels | The Salt Lake Tribune) Salt Lake County librarian Kathryn Kidd is interviewed on the Ruth Vine Tyler Library in Midvale, Monday, Feb. 14, 2022.

Kidd is a more recent librarian, in comparison with Huffaker. She’s been working as a teen providers librarian for 3-½ years, and mentioned she hasn’t handled quite a lot of censorship points herself, however there are a good quantity of challenges.

With regards to really getting a sure e-book banned, the method is a little more difficult. In actual fact, Utahns don’t see quite a lot of banned books.

“I used to be sort of pleased with that for lots of years — how folks in Utah are so good we rarely ban books, that solely occurs in Texas or Tennessee,” mentioned Huffaker, who was for 10 years a chair of the Utah Library Affiliation’s Mental Freedom Committee, and is a trustee for the Freedom to Learn Basis, a nonprofit affiliated with the American Library Affiliation.

Huffaker attributed Utah’s hands-off method to the state’s total id. “I feel it’s as a result of right here in Utah, all of us imagine that everybody will get to decide on for themselves. It’s what we’re born with, this nice reward,” she mentioned. “We have now to decide on for ourselves what we’re going to do.”

Kidd described the problem course of like this: Patrons who’ve considerations with matters or content material are inspired to speak to librarians, like herself, who’re specialists of their respective fields.

If the dialog doesn’t assuage any worries, the patron is invited to fill out a reconsideration kind on-line, which then goes to a committee of librarians from the county, who speak in regards to the e-book and decide learn how to transfer ahead. In some instances, meaning shifting a e-book from the teenager part to the grownup part — however, on the whole, it takes quite a lot of convincing to get a e-book banned outright.

(Chris Samuels | The Salt Lake Tribune) The teenager part on the Ruth Vine Tyler Library in Midvale, Monday, Feb. 14, 2022. Graphic novels are among the many most scrutinized books to be pulled from cabinets, in line with librarians Kathryn Kidd and Wanda Mae Huffaker.

The Salt Lake County Library system is working to refine the method, since Huffaker is an knowledgeable and he or she’s trying to retire. Her efforts with the workforce are to make the method extra goal.

“Our aim is to not censor what they’ll entry, to allow them to study and make choices for themselves,” Kidd mentioned.

These days, Huffaker mentioned, there’s been a rise in censorship efforts geared toward graphic novels — “Maus” is a major instance — and that over time, themes of racial range, LGBTQ+ illustration and coming-of-age persistently have been challenged.

With regards to e-book challenges, Huffaker mentioned, “for essentially the most half, individuals who problem books actually have one of the best pursuits of individuals at coronary heart.”

Although each Kidd and Huffaker agree there’s nothing to be gained from banning books, the method and dialogue of challenges permits librarians to attach extra with patrons, and clue them into what goes into deciding on books.

Kidd mentioned, “I really feel like typically librarians are made out to be like, ‘Oh, they’re simply utilizing our cash to purchase all these low-quality dangerous books,’ however that’s not how I see it. I see it as at all times attempting to work with the group when there’s a requirement, and [to meet] no matter their wants are.”

Huffaker added that the method, “from the second somebody comes into our library and sits down and talks with a employees member, ought to all be performed out of respect and consideration for his or her opinions and the way they really feel, how we work together. The entire course of shouldn’t be antagonistic.”

That antagonism is rising, although, due to concentrated campaigns on one aspect of the political spectrum, Huffaker mentioned.

“We’ve bought all these folks which can be so conservative, which can be banning all these books, writing all these letters everywhere in the entire nation, however right here in Utah, too,” Huffaker mentioned.

(Chris Samuels | The Salt Lake Tribune) Salt Lake County librarian Wanda Mae Huffaker is interviewed on the Ruth Vine Tyler Library in Midvale, Monday, Feb. 14, 2022.

On elevating well-rounded adults

Katie Wegner has been a librarian with the Summit County Library department for 5 years, in addition to the co-chair of the Utah State Library Affiliation’s Mental Freedom Committee.

Wegner, who’s shifting to the Salt Lake Metropolis library system, mentioned Summit County doesn’t obtain quite a lot of e-book challenges. She has observed, nevertheless, that social media has given rise to controversies round banning and even burning books.

Wegner mentioned she believes persons are utilizing social media “as a software to prepare and flag books, and [to] share a listing of books which can be being deemed inappropriate, although they’re not essentially studying or checking [them] out.”

When such lists goal tons of upon tons of of titles, Wegner mentioned, it’s robust to have civic discussions with the individuals who create them.

With regards to mother and father’ rights teams who need to outright ban sure titles, Wegner mentioned these teams appear “disconnected. … I feel folks need to shelter their youngsters from something that’s uncomfortable, as a substitute of getting these conversations.”

For some teenagers, Wegner mentioned, sure books assist them really feel seen and heard in ways in which the folks close to them can’t. “As librarians, we see the distinction books could make to teenagers,” she mentioned. “It’s scary to see that attacked.”

Many of those present challenges, Wegner mentioned, “aren’t a lot in regards to the books themselves. It’s extra of an assault on public training.”

Each Huffaker and Kidd echoed Wegner’s considerations, citing that those that want to curtail what books youngsters can learn usually are not encouraging the expansion of well-rounded adults with vital considering expertise.

“I firmly imagine that with books and the whole lot else, [if] we’ve shielded and guarded them and banned books and the whole lot else all alongside the way in which, after they’re 18, then they are going to be misplaced. They won’t know learn how to make decisions,” Huffaker mentioned.

Everybody, Huffaker mentioned, “are all a part of this, not simply librarians. The liberty to learn is important to democracy, to free folks. And if we lose that, you don’t get freedom again. It takes all of us to battle for it. We want everybody to battle for it.”

Wegner shares a petition software for patrons to signal, to have their voices heard within the dialog of censorship.

Huffaker has taken optimistic motion to maintain banned books alive: Final Christmas, she gave such books to all her grandchildren.

The librarians had one final bit of recommendation, one thing they’ve instilled in their very own youngsters: In case you don’t like a e-book, shut it, don’t learn it, and discover a new one.

‘It was hell’: Long lines of Ukrainian refugees at Poland border | Russia-Ukraine crisis News

Medyka, Ukraine-Poland border – Heat rays of the morning solar take away the final indicators of frost from the automobiles parked in infinite strains alongside the street.

Medyka – the principle border crossing between Poland and Ukraine – is slowly waking up, and so are dozens of women and men who spent the night time in parking heaps, ready for his or her family members to reach.

For the reason that starting of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, greater than 115,000 refugees have crossed into Poland, the Polish Ministry of Inner Affairs mentioned on Saturday. Anybody from Ukraine is allowed entry, even those that don’t maintain legitimate passports, Polish officers mentioned.

The United Nations Refugee Company says greater than 120,000 Ukrainian refugees have left the nation since Russia invaded Ukraine on Thursday.

Ukraine refugees at Poland borderFor some refugees, it takes greater than 24 hours to cross the border between Ukraine and Poland [Agnieszka Pikulicka-Wilczewska/Al Jazeera]

However for many Ukrainian refugees, it took days to flee the warfare.

Helena, 49, from Drohobych in western Ukraine, is sipping tea and consuming a sandwich she acquired from volunteers. She has household in Poznan, Poland, and he or she is aware of the arduous journey will quickly be over.

But it surely took her 24 hours to cross the border and arrive to security. “It was hell,” she advised Al Jazeera earlier than she burst into tears.

For Denis, a 30-year-old from Chernivtsi, Ukraine, who works at building websites in Poland, it was a troublesome night time as properly. He arrived at Medyka on Thursday to satisfy his spouse and youngsters coming from Ukraine. However after an entire night time of ready, they had been nowhere in sight.

“They’ve been on the border for over 24 hours. In the beginning, they needed to cross on foot but it surely was arduous, in order that they discovered a bus. No less than it’s not as chilly as outdoors,” he mentioned.

“However for the previous 5 hours or so, they don’t seem to be letting anybody by means of. It’s unclear why.”

Whereas Denis’s spouse and youngsters are on their strategy to reunite with him, his mom determined to cross again into Ukraine. She didn’t wish to be away from her husband and two different sons, who would possibly quickly obtain a name for service.

“My father fought in Afghanistan and he is aware of what a warfare is like,” Denis mentioned.

“He was able to sacrifice his life for the Soviet Union. Now he is able to sacrifice his life for Ukraine towards the brand new Russian energy,” he mentioned.

“It’s a paradox. However everybody can see what the Russians are doing. They took Crimea, Donbas, now they need Kharkiv.”

Instead of fleeing war, hundreds of Ukrainians return homeAs a substitute of fleeing warfare, lots of of Ukrainians return dwelling [Agnieszka Pikulicka-Wilczewska/Al Jazeera]

Denis advised Al Jazeera he would possibly be a part of the combat too, however first desires to verify his spouse and youngsters are secure. In per week or two, he mentioned, if the enemy is nearer to his hometown of Chernivtsi, he should take up arms.

“If they arrive nearer to our houses, we should return and combat. For thus a few years, we’ve labored to construct the nation that even when a few of us go away, others should keep. If everybody leaves, who will defend us?” Denis requested.

For the primary half of the day on Friday, extra folks crossed into Ukraine than had been seen leaving the border – a puzzling paradox in a time of mass exodus.

Ukrainian refugees additionally complained about ready hours to obtain the Polish stamp, lack of meals obtainable within the passage between Ukraine and Poland, and extreme chilly within the area.

Amid the border chaos, volunteers handed out water, heat garments and blankets to the conscripts crossing into Ukraine to affix the combat.

The gear will enable girls and youngsters – stranded between Poland and Ukraine and nonetheless ready for an opportunity to get to security – to outlive one other freezing day.

Polish and Ukrainian volunteersPolish and Ukrainian volunteers work day and night time in any respect border crossings to offer water, sizzling drinks and meals to refugees arriving from Ukraine [Agnieszka Pikulicka-Wilczewska/Al Jazeera]

Yelena, a 43-year-old refugee herself, is among the volunteers handing out the gadgets.

She arrived in Poland nearly a 12 months in the past from Belarus. When she discovered that Russia had launched a full-scale invasion towards Ukraine, she didn’t wish to keep idle.

“I needed to affix the warfare. The Polish border guard let me by means of, however the Ukrainians didn’t. You already know why? As a result of I’ve a Belarusian passport,” Yelena advised Al Jazeera.

“All sort of assist is required there: somebody has to cook dinner, somebody has to care for the wounded. I even tried to cross a second time, however to no avail.”

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Yelena mentioned she then destroyed her Belarusian passport in protest towards the warfare and joined the Ukrainian and Polish volunteers on the border.

“I really feel ashamed for Belarus. Ukraine has to win this warfare,” she mentioned. “Slava Ukraini [Glory to Ukraine].”

She then handed a blanket and several other bottles of water to a younger man coming into the border crossing in the direction of Ukraine.

Olga is ready in the identical queue. She stands out from the remainder of the group; her lengthy, trendy coat with quirky patterns and impeccable hair attracts consideration.

INTERACTIVE- Visa requirements for Ukrainians

Olga and her boyfriend Sergey had been ready for a flight again to Ukraine at an airport in Vilnius, Lithuania, once they heard in regards to the warfare unfolding of their homeland.

“We went to Lithuania for a weekend and we acquired caught in there. Our flight dwelling was cancelled. For the primary few hours, we couldn’t perceive what was occurring, we couldn’t imagine it,” the 33-year-old everlasting make-up artist advised Al Jazeera.

She now hopes that after again in Ukraine, she is going to be capable to volunteer in a hospital as a nurse. She mentioned she desires to make herself helpful.

Her boyfriend Sergey is 38, which suggests he’s within the conscription age. He works as a sound director and has by no means held a gun.

But when his abilities aren’t sufficient to help the battle, he can be taught new ones, he says with an air of confidence. “No matter it takes to assist the nation.”

It took the couple two days to get from Vilnius to the border. All buses on the route had been cancelled, and there have been no trains both. Ultimately, “Lithuanian brothers” drove them straight to Medyka.

Whereas Sergey is afraid of warfare, he says it by no means crossed his thoughts to remain elsewhere in Europe.

“There’s one Ukraine and we are able to’t lose it. It’s our homeland and it’ll by no means be Russia.”