Balkan Peninsula


The Balkan peninsula, often known as the Balkans (from the abbreviated type of the Balkan Mountains, a mountain system between Bulgaria and Serbia; from the Turkish balkan ‘mountain’ [2]), is a peninsula in Japanese Europe; it’s bounded to the west by the Adriatic Sea, to the southwest by the Ionian Sea, to the east by the Black Sea, to the southeast by the Sea of ​​Marmara, and to the south by the Aegean Sea.

Description

As typically occurs for the peninsulas, the definition of its border on the mainland is unsure, aggravated by the truth that it’s one among its most extensive borders. Moreover, the definition of this dividing line doesn’t assist the truth that the territory presents inside it nice variations and fragmentations by historical past, nationality, language, tradition and faith of the populations who reside there.
The border is normally established on the Danube and its tributary Sava. On this approach, elements of Slovenia and Romania (an Japanese Romance-speaking nation) are additionally included on this space, which nevertheless traditionally needed to do with the Balkans solely after the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire. Based on geographer Vittorio Vialli, the northern boundary is represented by the geographical line Istria-Odessa. Slovenia excludes from the area the interpretation of the border that features the Kupa River, beginning it from town of Rijeka and reaching the mouth of the Danube. [3] On this approach it borders to the west with the so-called Italian geographical area, [4] [5] which additionally contains territories that aren’t a part of the Italian Republic. The political definition of the Balkans got here into use within the nineteenth century to designate the European international locations affected by the enlargement and subsequent dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. [6]
In spite of everything, the traits of the territory, crossed by parallel mountain ranges that hindered the motion in a north-south route and a uniform colonization already on the time of the Greco-Roman enlargement, and its very geographical location assist to clarify the tormented historic occasions which have characterised the peninsula. [7]
Till 1975 the peninsula was crossed by the Balkan Express, a prepare departing from Vienna and arriving in Istanbul. The local weather is continental within the north and east of the territory (with sizzling summers and really chilly winters), whereas the western space and Greece have a Mediterranean local weather.
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Monasterolo Casotto


Monasterolo Casotto is a small city situated within the Casotto valley, of which the most effective recognized city is Pamparato. Monasterolo is split into varied hamlets. The primary ones are: Borgata Sottana, Borgata Cravena, Borgata Soprana and Borgata Case Scuole. Typically this village is desolate in winter, however in summer season it turns into a small city the place many Ligurians and Turinese go on vacation. Till a number of years in the past a typical restaurant was energetic. Just lately a small restaurant has opened in Borgata Soprana which, along with the bar service, serves as a resale of typical merchandise managed immediately by a resident household. Simply exterior the city there are the remains of the castle, at this time solely the tower stays seen. Within the village there’s additionally a Professional Loco which in the course of the summer season is managed by younger individuals who go on vacation, who arrange dinners adopted by evenings of dancing within the sq..

Historical past

An historic inscription discovered on the sanctuary of San Colombano attributes Roman origins to the small city of Monasterolo Casotto, whose title continues to be attributed to a monastery of Benedictines who settled right here later round 1000 [4], however which it already noticed within the epoch Lombard the presence of an historic monastery of Benedictine nuns related with the convent of Pogliola di Morozzo.
The addition of “Casotto”, from the title of the stream that runs by the valley, dates again to 1862, when a Royal decree granted the Municipalities of the Province of Cuneo the correct to undertake a brand new title.
On that event a brand new coat of arms was additionally adopted which depicts a church leaning in opposition to a monastery on which a white tower stands, surrounded by two branches of holly.
The historical past of Monasterolo Casotto sees its ownership pass from the Rely of Bredolo to that of Alba and to the Marquis of Ceva (on the orders of the Marquis Bonifacio of Savona who had divided the states in 1142). The Lords of Monasterolo lived within the fort, now destroyed, close to the Feia stream, a fort that was the seat of obligation and justice in the course of the bloody “Struggle of Salt”.
The territories had been disputed between the Marquis of Ceva and the Savoy courtroom, after which the inhabitants of Monasterolo additionally participated within the varied wars of liberation that affected Piedmont first and Italy later with the world conflicts.
Through the Fascist regime the Municipality was annexed to that of San Michele Mondovì till 1947, when autonomy was once more acknowledged.
Presently the city is split into two hamlets, the Sottana at 735 m and the Soprana at 824 m. Midway there’s the parish church constructed in the beginning of the 20th century to unify the 2 earlier parishes: that of San Bernardo within the Soprana hamlet and that of S. Antonio within the Sottana hamlet. It’s devoted to Saints James and John and retains the bell that when belonged to the church of San Bernardo.
On a hill past the Soprana hamlet is the Sanctuary of S. Colombano, constructed round 1000 by the Benedictine monks who devoted it to this saint of Irish origin, founding father of monastic life within the kingdom of France within the seventh century. Within the Monregalesi Valleys, San Colombano was depicted as a Roman soldier, maybe to represent the robust hyperlink between non secular and political motion within the monasteries.
The present church is made up of two our bodies from different periods: an older longitudinal one however of unsure date, with integrated bell tower and one with a sq. baroque plan (1645). Through the years some adjustments have been made to the construction, lastly, in 1884, the portico with uncovered roof of the present facade was rebuilt. Inside there are nonetheless seen votive work as proof of devotion to the Saint, whereas on the skin there’s the traditional “Conca” or “Arbi”, a hollowed-out stone the place oily liquid was collected which appears to have miraculous properties.
On that event a brand new coat of arms was additionally adopted which depicts a church leaning in opposition to a monastery on which a white tower stands, surrounded by two branches of holly.
On the fai website, within the locations of the guts part there’s the tower of the monasterolo fort and it’s doable to vote for it.
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Hudson Terminal Towers


Hudson Terminal included two 22-story Romanesque skyscrapers above the H&M station.[14]:326[67] The buildings had been designed by Clinton and Russell architect James Hollis Wells and constructed by contractor George A. Fuller.[14]:326[19][56]:123 Purdy and Henderson was liable for structural planning.[14]:437[56]:123 Positioned on what would change into the positioning of the World Commerce Heart, Hudson Terminal’s skyscrapers preceded the future complex in dimension and performance.[22] When the buildings had been first opened, the peak and look of town’s skyscrapers had been nonetheless hotly debated, being criticized for his or her quantity and density. So lots of the early Twentieth century skyscrapers had been designed with towers, steeples, or domes above a dense base, whereas others had been divided into two constructions, such because the Hudson Terminal.
The advanced occupied a lot of the lot bordered by Cortlandt Avenue to the south, Church Avenue to the east, and Fulton Avenue to the west, with the northernmost constructing addressed as 50 Church Avenue and the southernmost as 30 Church Avenue. Hudson Terminal was additionally near a number of low-rise buildings to the west on Greenwich Avenue.[22] They had been referred to as the Fulton and Cortlandt buildings respectively, and had been collectively referred to as the Church Avenue terminal.[19][68] These buildings had been separated by Dey Avenue, as town authorities wouldn’t permit the road to be closed.

Format

The Hudson Terminal buildings, together with 49 Chambers, had been the primary skyscrapers within the metropolis to have an “H” form, with courtyards inside offering mild for the places of work.[14]:392 The advanced’s lot initially occupied it. a complete space of ​​6,500 m2.[14]:326 In keeping with the Engineering File, the Fulton constructing occupied a plot of 48 by 47 m, whereas the Cortlandt constructing plot measured 65 by 52 m.[56]:121 Nonetheless, the New-York Tribune printed completely different measurements, 48 ​​by 55 m for the Fulton Constructing and 65 by 57 m for the Cortlandt Constructing.[19] By the mid-Twentieth century, annexes had been added to each buildings, leading to a mixed complete space of ​​7,971.3 m2.[27]
The design of the two buildings was comparable. The primary to 3rd flooring had been parallelograms within the plan, with the buildings above the third ground assuming an “H” form. The courtyards of each skyscrapers confronted north and south, whereas the corridors on every ground of every constructing prolonged eastward alongside Church Avenue.[14]:326–327[70] The courtyard of the Cortlandt constructing spanned throughout the road. 9.8 by 23.2 m, whereas that of the Fulton constructing measured 14.6 by 9.8 m. The wings on both sides of the courtyards had been asymmetrically large.[56]:121 The roofs of the buildings rose to a top of 84.05 m.[19][56]:121 Small “towers” with pitched roofs on either side. buildings introduced the full top to 93 m.

Facade

The facade of the skyscrapers was encased in Indiana limestone under the Fiftieth-floor cornice, and with brick and terracotta from there.[19][60][67][56]:121 The unique design included Doric columns beneath the roof cornice.[19] When constructed, the primary 4 flooring had been made from polished granite and limestone; with every floor ground part made from glass. The highest six flooring of every constructing had been lined in light-toned terracotta as per the unique plan.[14]:328[60] The ends of every constructing additionally had strips of terracotta in the identical shade. Arches linked three of the six higher flooring.[14]:328 As a result of asymmetrical dimensions of the skyscrapers, the Fulton Constructing had eighteen spans going through Church Avenue and nineteen spans going through Dey Avenue, whereas the Cortlandt Constructing had twenty-eight spans. two stretches going through Church Avenue and twenty reverse Cortlandt Avenue.
The 2 buildings had been linked by a pedestrian bridge above the road on the third ground of every constructing.[63] One other bridge connecting the seventeenth ground of each skyscrapers was authorized and inbuilt 1913, shortly after the advanced opened.

supplies

Altogether, the buildings contained 16.3 million bricks, 13,000 lamps, 15,200 doorways, 5,000 home windows, and 4,100 tonnes of terracotta, in addition to 120,000 m2 of partitions and 31,000 m3 of concrete arches. The buildings additionally had a number of kilometers of pipes, water and gasoline piping, wood planks, moldings and electrical wiring.
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