Англия

Англия — самая большая и самая густонаселенная часть Соединенного Королевства в Северо-Западной Европе.

Англия включает большую часть южной части острова Великобритании, граничит с Шотландией на севере и Уэльсом и Ирландским морем на западе. Страна омывается Северным морем на востоке, Ла-Маншем на юге и Атлантическим океаном на юго-западе.

Лондон – столица Англии и всего Соединенного Королевства. По количеству жителей это также третий по величине город в Европе (после Москвы и Стамбула). Население Англии, составляющее более 55 миллионов человек, составляет почти 85% населения Великобритании.

География страны характеризуется невысокими холмами и равнинами, особенно в центральной и южной Англии. Однако на севере и юго-западе есть также высокогорья.

Во многих европейских языках (например, в немецком, голландском, французском и др.) название Англия также используется синекдохически для всего Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии.

этимология

Название Англия происходит от древнеанглийского слова Engaland, что означает земля англов. Англы были германским племенем, населявшим страну в раннем средневековье. Согласно Оксфордскому словарю английского языка , первое письменное упоминание имени Engla lande было в 1014 году. Современное написание England (также Engelland в средневековых текстах) впервые было записано в 1658 году.

Альтернативное название Англии — Альбион. Первоначально он относился ко всему острову Великобритании. Этот термин также используется в наше время, особенно поэтически, для Англии. Номинально самое раннее упоминание этого имени, вероятно, относится к 4 веку до нашей эры. находится в Аристотелевском корпусе. В нем говорится что-то вроде: «За Геракловыми Столпами есть два очень больших острова, называемых Британия; это Альбион и Иерн». Слово Альбион (Ἀλβίων) может происходить от латинского слова albus (белый), относящегося к белым скалам Дувра (между Англией и Францией).

Chuma cha ndale

Chuma cha ndale ndicho kuphunzira za kupanga ndi malonda ndi ubale wawo ndi malamulo, miyambo ndi boma; ndi kugawa chuma ndi chuma cha dziko. Monga mwambo, chuma cha ndale chinayambira mu nzeru zamakhalidwe, m’zaka za zana la 18, kufufuza kayendetsedwe ka chuma cha mayiko, ndi “ndale” kutanthauza liwu lachi Greek polity ndi “chuma” kutanthauza liwu lachi Greek οἰκονομία (kasamalidwe kanyumba). Zolemba zakale kwambiri zazachuma zandale nthawi zambiri zimanenedwa ndi akatswiri aku Britain Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, ndi David Ricardo, ngakhale adatsogoleredwa ndi ntchito za akatswiri azamaphunziro a ku France, monga François Quesnay (1694-1774) ndi Anne-Robert-Jacques. Turgot (1727-1781). Palinso mwambo womwe umakhala wautali, wotsutsa chuma chandale.

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1800, mawu akuti “zachuma” pang’onopang’ono anayamba kusintha mawu akuti “chuma cha ndale” ndi kukwera kwa masamu a masamu omwe akugwirizana ndi kufalitsidwa kwa buku lodziwika bwino la Alfred Marshall mu 1890. Poyambirira, William Stanley Jevons, wochirikiza maphunziro a masamu. njira za masamu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa phunziroli, zimalimbikitsa zachuma kuti zikhale zachidule komanso ndi chiyembekezo cha mawuwa kukhala “dzina lodziwika la sayansi”. Miyezo yochokera ku Google Ngram Viewer ikuwonetsa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mawu oti “economics” kudayamba kuphimba “chuma chandale” cha m’ma 1910, kukhala mawu okondedwa a chilangocho pofika 1920. Masiku ano, mawu oti “chuma” nthawi zambiri amatanthauza kafukufuku wocheperako. Zachuma palibe malingaliro ena andale ndi chikhalidwe pomwe mawu oti “ndale chuma” akuyimira njira yosiyana komanso yopikisana.

M’mawu amodzi, “chuma chandale” chingangotanthauza upangiri woperekedwa ndi akatswiri azachuma ku boma kapena kwa anthu pa mfundo zazachuma kapena malingaliro ena azachuma opangidwa ndi asayansi andale. Mabuku odziwika omwe akukula mwachangu kuyambira m’ma 1970 adakula kupitilira ndondomeko yazachuma momwe okonza mapulani amakulitsa kugwiritsa ntchito kwa munthu woyimilira kuti awone momwe ndale zimakhudzira kusankha kwa mfundo zachuma, makamaka mikangano yogawa ndi mabungwe andale.

Imapezeka ngati malo ophunzirira okha kapena operekedwa pansi pazachuma kapena sayansi yandale m’mabungwe ena, kuphatikiza Harvard University, Princeton University, London School of Economics, Stanford University, University of Chicago, pakati pa ena.

Make a duplicate of your Mac’s hard drive

You should create a full duplicate (a clone or a mirror) of your Mac’s data before installing macOS updates or upgrades, regardless of whether Time Machine keeps regular backups of your computer. It is possible to create a one-time clone or regular backups in addition to or instead of Time Machine using Carbon Copy Cloner 6 (£29.90, bombich.com). Previous versions of the software are compatible with Mac OS X Mojave and before.

Catalina and Big Sur have an impact on how you recover from a clone in different ways. To avoid having to clone back from the copy to your internal storage, it’s preferable to install macOS first and then migrate from the copy; unfortunately, this is the only option for M1 Macs. Because of this, you won’t have to clone the System disk, which will save you some space, but CCC can still do this function for you.

CCC offers a plethora of choices. Using them to their full potential, such as omitting things that should be duplicated individually and creating snapshots for fast file recovery, are shown in this section. Whatever method you choose, make sure your clone is functional by restoring test items.

Exactly how to clone your Mac in the proper manner

1 Increase the volume of the source

Select Tasks from the left-hand sidebar of Carbon Copy Cloner and provide a name to the new, empty backup job that appears. To make your Mac’s starting drive, which is by default called Macintosh HD, the source for your clone, click on the Source icon and pick it from the drop-down menu.

2 Decide on a final location

Make a note of the amount of space that has been used on your source volume, and ensure that the destination volume has enough free space to accommodate this. Then, using the Destination icon, choose a volume that has enough free space to accommodate the clone.

3 Decide whether or not to repeat.

If you wish this cloning to be repeated automatically, choose Automation from the drop-down menu and specify the scheduling basis. Normally, a daily clone is the ideal option for backups or when the disk is remounted for MacBooks that are connected sporadically.

4 Establish the specifics of the schedule.

If your Mac is going to be left running overnight, it’s a good idea to set the run time at a period when it won’t be used. If the system is going to be sleeping, you may have the backup job wake the system up, or you can wait until later to wake the system up. You may also skip weekends if you like.

5 Create a list of things to be excluded.

Choose things you don’t want included in the clone by selecting Task Plan at the bottom of the main window and clicking OK. It is recommended to maintain distinct copies of large files such as Virtual Machines, which change frequently while they are in use.

6 Configure advanced options

CCC provides a plethora of sophisticated features, such as the ability to execute scripts before and after the copying process. Changing the priority of its copying jobs is now possible if you want it to back up while you’re working on your Mac.

Seventh, test it out with a dry run.

Before you start the initial clone, make sure that the copying will give the results you anticipate. When you use the Preview tool, CCC will do a dry run without transferring any real files, and it will predict the exact size of the files. Now is the time to correct any mistakes.

8 Create a set of source snapshots

Consider taking frequent pictures of your surroundings. Select the starting data disk called Macintosh HD – Data or simply Data from the Volumes drop-down menu in the sidebar. Turn on CCC to create a snapshot of the volume for each duplicate of the volume that you have.

9 Retention of snapshots

Because older snapshots may take up a significant amount of disk space, most users should find CCC’s default snapshot retention strategy to be suitable. Select Customize from the drop-down menu to create your own policy if desired, but keep an eye on the amount of space being used.

10 Make a clone of that volume

When you’ve finished configuring everything, right-click the task in the sidebar and choose the Run Now option to create the first clone of it. CCC then displays the progress of the clone in graphical form, as well as an exact estimate of how long it will take to complete it.

11 Examine the tasks’ actions

As soon as the cloning process is complete, go to Task History, pick the completed task, and then click on the Task Trends button to get a summary of the activities. Click on the Start button in the main window if the job is going to repeat on a regular basis.

System clone is an optional feature.

Alternatively, if you want CCC to clone your System disk as well, you need first configure the Destination to create a complete bootable backup by clicking on its icon and choosing the Legacy Bootable Backup Assistant option before proceeding to step 7.

IT WILL TAKE TIME.

10 minutes are allotted.

YOU WILL GAIN KNOWLEDGE

To duplicate files in order to be able to recover them

YOU WILL REQUIRE

Carbon Copy Cloner 6 requires macOS 10.15 or later, an external storage device with adequate free space, and a computer with internet access.