Chuma cha ndale

Chuma cha ndale ndicho kuphunzira za kupanga ndi malonda ndi ubale wawo ndi malamulo, miyambo ndi boma; ndi kugawa chuma ndi chuma cha dziko. Monga mwambo, chuma cha ndale chinayambira mu nzeru zamakhalidwe, m’zaka za zana la 18, kufufuza kayendetsedwe ka chuma cha mayiko, ndi “ndale” kutanthauza liwu lachi Greek polity ndi “chuma” kutanthauza liwu lachi Greek οἰκονομία (kasamalidwe kanyumba). Zolemba zakale kwambiri zazachuma zandale nthawi zambiri zimanenedwa ndi akatswiri aku Britain Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, ndi David Ricardo, ngakhale adatsogoleredwa ndi ntchito za akatswiri azamaphunziro a ku France, monga François Quesnay (1694-1774) ndi Anne-Robert-Jacques. Turgot (1727-1781). Palinso mwambo womwe umakhala wautali, wotsutsa chuma chandale.

Chakumapeto kwa zaka za m’ma 1800, mawu akuti “zachuma” pang’onopang’ono anayamba kusintha mawu akuti “chuma cha ndale” ndi kukwera kwa masamu a masamu omwe akugwirizana ndi kufalitsidwa kwa buku lodziwika bwino la Alfred Marshall mu 1890. Poyambirira, William Stanley Jevons, wochirikiza maphunziro a masamu. njira za masamu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa phunziroli, zimalimbikitsa zachuma kuti zikhale zachidule komanso ndi chiyembekezo cha mawuwa kukhala “dzina lodziwika la sayansi”. Miyezo yochokera ku Google Ngram Viewer ikuwonetsa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito mawu oti “economics” kudayamba kuphimba “chuma chandale” cha m’ma 1910, kukhala mawu okondedwa a chilangocho pofika 1920. Masiku ano, mawu oti “chuma” nthawi zambiri amatanthauza kafukufuku wocheperako. Zachuma palibe malingaliro ena andale ndi chikhalidwe pomwe mawu oti “ndale chuma” akuyimira njira yosiyana komanso yopikisana.

M’mawu amodzi, “chuma chandale” chingangotanthauza upangiri woperekedwa ndi akatswiri azachuma ku boma kapena kwa anthu pa mfundo zazachuma kapena malingaliro ena azachuma opangidwa ndi asayansi andale. Mabuku odziwika omwe akukula mwachangu kuyambira m’ma 1970 adakula kupitilira ndondomeko yazachuma momwe okonza mapulani amakulitsa kugwiritsa ntchito kwa munthu woyimilira kuti awone momwe ndale zimakhudzira kusankha kwa mfundo zachuma, makamaka mikangano yogawa ndi mabungwe andale.

Imapezeka ngati malo ophunzirira okha kapena operekedwa pansi pazachuma kapena sayansi yandale m’mabungwe ena, kuphatikiza Harvard University, Princeton University, London School of Economics, Stanford University, University of Chicago, pakati pa ena.